On birds, Studies

Method to assess the potential magnitude of terrestrial European avian population reductions from ingestion of lead ammunition

Author: Carolyn B. Meyer, Joseph S. Meyer, Alex B. Francisco, Jennifer Holder, Frederik Verdonck

This study proposes a 2-step method using carcass data and population models. The method estimates percentage of deaths diagnosed as directly caused by lead poisoning as a lower bound and, as an upper bound, the percentage of possible deaths from sublethal lead poisoning that weakens birds, making them susceptible to death by other causes.

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